This section is categorized by the type of measure.
Dan Batson paradigm – Empathic response to Kathy’s plight, perception of similarity and perception of need all measure how much compassion and sympathy we feel for others, particularly strangers.
- Batson, D. C., Lishner, D. A., Cook, J., & Sawyer, S. (2010). Similarity and nurturance : Two possible sources of empathy for strangers. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27(1), 37-41.
Recording time taken to offer assistance after to exposure to violence.
- Bushman, B. J. & Anderson C. (2009). Comfortably numb: desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others. Psychological Science, 20(3), 273-7.
Opportunity to Give/Willingness or Likelihood of Helping – Participants read hypothetical scenarios where they have a chance to help strangers and indicate the likelihood of their helping based on how they would behave in each situation at the present moment.
- On a scale from 1 (not at all likely) to 9 (very likely), responses to the scenarios were averaged to form the dependent measure of helping.
- DeWall, C., Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M. T., & Maner, J. K. (2008). Depletion makes the heart grow less helpful: Helping as a function of self-regulatory energy and genetic relatedness. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(12), 1653-1662. doi:10.1177/0146167208323981.
Bond and Lader (Visual Analogue) Mood Rating Scale (BLMRS) – two items of the BLMRS specifically assess subjective prosocial effects:antagonistic/amicable and withdrawn/gregarious.
- Dumont, G. H., Sweep, F. J., van der Steen, R. R., Hermsen, R. R., Donders, A. T., Touw, D. J., & … Verkes, R. J. (2009). Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration. Social Neuroscience, 4(4), 359-366. doi:10.1080/17470910802649470.
The number of people approached for a contribution and the average amount of the contributions made can be measured in response to being asked for help.
- Flynn, F. J., & Lake, V. (2008). “If you need help, just ask”: Underestimating compliance with direct requests for help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 128 -143.
Dichotomous measure of whether voluntary help is provided measures prosocial behavior.
- Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(6), 946-955. doi:10.1037/a0017935.
Charitable Giving Behavior by self-reported satisfaction after either voluntary or mandatory giving.
- Harbaugh, W. T., Mayr, U., & Burghart, D. R. (2007). Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations. Science, 316(5831), 1622-1625. doi:10.1126/science.1140738.
Magnitude of donations as a measure of altruism.